The concept of letter of credit and bill of exchange essay

Other forms of effected payment is the direct payment where the supplier ships the goods and waits for the buyer to remit the bill, on open account terms. The beneficiary to letter of credit has a legal entitlement of the payment as long as the provisions of the documentation process into the transactions are provided.

When the payment date is due, it is presented for the accepted payment by the drawee as it could be stated. As a result, this kind of arrangement would make letter of credit to be enforceable under the action assumpsit because of its promissory connotation. This is crucial in mitigating the risk to insolvency.

Documents required under the LC, could in certain circumstances, be different from those required under the sale transaction. Note that under the scheme of letters of credit, banks are neither benefactors of sellers nor benefactors of buyers and the seller receives no money in gratuity mode.

He will be exposed to the insolvency risk of the applicant, that is, the risk the applicant runs insolvent before he is able to repay the letter of credit. When the drawee makes material alterations in the wordings of the bill, and then accepts it, it is a qualified acceptance.

The applicant is also exposed to the failure of the bank to make payment. After the acceptance the bill is returned to the drawer. They are adequate in facilitating payment within the scores of international trade. It is a document used within the international trade for the elimination of various risks such as ambiguities in customs, foreign country unfamiliarity or possible states of political instability Susan,p.

Issuing Bank The issuing bank is also exposed to risks which he may seek to mitigate through various techniques. Usually, LCs may be drawn with or without some conditions. Review of Business, Vol. In some cases, the drawer may make the bill payable to a third party, then the drawer and the payee will be different persons.

Courts have emphasized that buyers always have a remedy for an action upon the contract of sale and that it would be a calamity for the business world if a bank had to investigate every breach of contract.

If the LC does not specify charges, they are paid by the Applicant. The range of documents that may be requested by the applicant is vast, and varies considerably by country and commodity.

The payment obligation is independent from the underlying contract of sale or any other contract in the transaction. Charge-related terms are indicated in field 71B. On the other hand, a bill of exchange is a payment instrument where the seller can discount the bill of exchange with the bank and receive payment.

It is a general practice to give to the drawee three days of grace extra days over and above the period of the bill. Whenever a bill is drawn, it is usual for the drawer to specify the date of the bill, on the top right-hand corner.

Finally, the issuing bank obtains the payment from the buyer and releases documents so that the buyer can now claim the goods from the carrier.

In this case, the seller is exposed to a number of risks such as credit riskand legal risk caused by the distance, differing laws and difficulty in knowing each party personally. This is because LC shows a greater commitment to making payment than a bill of exchange.

Acceptance is given across the face of the Bill as: If this were not the case, the bank would be entitled to withhold payment even if the deviation is purely technical or even typographical.

It is also known as the date of maturity. But, a bill drawn and payable at sight or on demand, does not require acceptance. Beneficiary The beneficiary will be exposed to the risk of its own failure to comply with credit conditions or failure of, or delays in payment from, the issuing bank.

Upon its acceptance, the drawer can choose the discounting of the bill of exchange from his account so as to get immediate funds as working capital.

In some cases, a letter of credit will require the documents to be collected. Essentials and Advantages With Specimen Article shared by: Upon the request of documents into the transaction for revealing the conditions and terms held in the contract, the bank is legally entitled to make the payment Mark, Jerry,p.

Difference Between Bill of Exchange and Letter of Credit

The amount should be paid within a stipulated time. The buyer can be confident that the goods he is expecting only will be received since it will be evidenced in the form of certain documents, meeting the specified terms and conditions.

Articles on Trade Credit

Strategies for the International Letter of Trade: Acceptance is the assent by the drawee to the order of the drawer. It must be dated and stamped. The sum payable must be specified.Letter Of Credit And Contract Of Sale A general contract of sale between two individuals signifies a consensus between the two parties as to what duties applies to them which they would be liable for were they unable to fulfil them in full.

Start studying Chapter 7. Learn A Bill of Exchange is a specialized type of non-negotiable their face and correspond to the terms of the letter of credit.

At maturity, the bill of exchange will become a negotiable payment instrument that can be traded, and the holder of the bill of exchange (either the seller or the bank) will receive payment. Summary: Bill of Exchange vs Letter of Credit • Letters of credit and bill of exchange both facilitate international transactions between buyers and sellers.

Essentials of a Bill of Exchange: 1. A bill of exchange must be in writing. 2. It must be dated and stamped. draft/ bill of exchange.

drawn under letter of credit no lc issued at toronto, on may issued by issuing bank of germany usdat 90 days after sight for value received please pay against this draft to the order of ourselves the sum of one.

Dec 02,  · In this Presentation Clear the defination and concept of bill of exchange.

The concept of letter of credit and bill of exchange essay
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